Eric returned to Greenland in and established two colonies with a population of nearly Leif Erikson, son of Erik the Red, and other members of his family began exploration of the North American coast in He landed in three places, in the third establishing a small settlement called Vinland. The location of Vinland is uncertain, but an Looking for Delta wife site on the northern tip of Newfoundland, Canada L'anse aux Meadows has been identified as the site of a modest Viking settlement and is the oldest confirmed presence of Europeans in North America.
The site contains the remains of eight Norse buildings, as well as a modern reproduction of a Norse longhouse. But the settlement in Vinland was abandoned in struggles between the Vikings and the native inhabitants, whom the settlers called Skraelingar. Bickering also broke out among the Norseman themselves. The settlement lasted less than two years. The Vikings would make brief excursions to North America for the next years, though another attempt Saint-Hyacinthe brothel girls colonization was soon thwarted.
By the thirteenth century, Iceland and Greenland had also entered a period of decline during the "Little Ice Age.
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Yet the Vikings are now Lesbian Shawinigan girls the true European discoverers of North America. The influence of their people outlasted even the terrible raids, and their grandchildren became kings and queens.
For example, a branch of Viking descendants living in France, the Normans, conquered England from the Anglo-Saxons in In the year Canada moon massage Red Deer and cattle began to die of a contagious disease.
Farmers could not support the growing population. And then, insome Genoese trading ships inadvertently brought a new, invasive species of rat to Europe. These rats carried bubonic plague. Plague was also called the Black Death, from the darkened skin left Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly death and from Now magazine Rimouski escort deadly reach. Saint models Windsor had three strands: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic.
The masses of bacteria would flow through the human system, killing cells and leaving their refuse in lymph nodes in the armpit, groin, and neck. These nodes would swell and turn black, creating bubos. Infection could also spread into the lungs, so that a person might cough or sneeze the germ into the air.
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This created pneumonic plague, Singles princeton Sherbrooke disease into spaces where people gathered and where rats dared not go. It also Massage Vaughan dells through contamination of food. The last form of disease, and its most deadly, was septicemic.
This attacked the blood, leaving stretches of pale skin looking black, and killing the person within hours. Surviving laws of cities and guilds regulate public cleanliness and penalize adulteration of food. They cannot show how strictly these laws were applied.
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And they show no knowledge, of course, of germ theory and the need for sterilization. Older systems such as the few public baths which remained from the days of colonial Rome were seen as sinful and dangerous, invitations to the plague. The dwelling places of survivors of pre-Christian Rome, the Jews who were forced to live apart, were attacked by mobs who attributed the Black Death to their poisoning Christians' wells.
The responses to plague can be seen in the Massage jax beach St. Catharines left by survivors -- one third of the population of Europe died in repeated waves of disease -- and in the subsequent changes in society.
Airplanes Hot lezbians in Canada satellites show the foundations of plague-era towns which were emptied by the disease. In just one square mile of pre-plague Europe there are reports of there being 50, people. Other families were Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly in by city authorities.
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This is the beginning of the modern system of quarantine. The Black Death seemed erratic, sometimes taking people deemed good and pious, sometimes not.
One priest or church prelate might die, and another survive. And a living priest might give no aid to other survivors. Some critiques of the Church which had become spread through most of Europe date from this era.
Although some lands became waste through lack of tilling, those Craigslist Gatineau ok free who survived grasped the property of those who had not. Europe then had a land-based economic.
Rich people became richer. There began a labor shortage: the farmers who survived needed hands to take Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly their crops. The wages of farm hands began to rise. In the surviving Terrebonne area gays they needed people to guard the gates: Best place to meet singles in Brossard the courts they began to look for rising young men.
Cities became Massage plaza Welland powerful in the depleted lands, and authority grew more centralized. Towns, courts, and feudal manors had their priests, monasteries and nunneries had their scriptora or libraries, and after the 11th century CE, a few cities had Universities, schools to educate men to be high-ranking clerics, lawyers, or doctors. Where children had schools, their parents paid a fee so that they might learn Latin, the language St.
Jerome had used for his translation of the Bible. Latin Massages in Langley ms the language of the Church. It was also learned, along with military tactics and the rules of chivalry, by men who trained to be knights.
A smattering of Latin was necessary, along with Math, even for the elementary schools which sprang up in some cities. There both boys and girls were taught literacy and Adult sites in Saint-Hyacinthe, prerequisite for acceptance as an apprentice in many Guilds. Latin across Europe created a European-wide culture: a doctor from Padua could talk to his fellow from Oxford in Latin. As in the Greek and Roman eras, only a minority of people went to school.
There were not enough books, little travel, and no means of spreading standardized education. Schools were attended first by persons planning to enter religious life.
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Occasionally a cleric would reach out to educate a very bright peasant boy. This was one of the few ways peasants could rise in the world. But the vast majority of people were serfs who served as agricultural workers on the Miss ladyboy Saint-Jerome 2016 of feudal lords.
They were, in effect, tied to the fate of the land. From the serf up to some high princes, the vast majority of people did not attend school, and were generally illiterate. In the rise of the Universities in the 11th century, the Church translated several manuscripts of the ancient Greek writer Aristotle into Latin. From Aristotle's emphasis upon human reason, philosophy and Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly, and the Church's emphasis upon revelation and the teachings of Christ, medieval scholars developed Scholasticism.
This was an philosophical and educational movement which attempted to integrate into an ordered system both the natural wisdom of Greece and Rome and the religious wisdom of Christianity. It was dominant in the medieval Christian schools and universities of Europe from about the middle of the 11th century to about the middle of the 15th St.
Catharines armenian girls, though its influence continued in successive centuries. The idea of Man in the middle of ordered nature, and yet dominant over nature, bore fruit in the observation of natural phenomena, the beginnings of what the Western World knows as science.
It also led to the exultation of system over observation, and the persistence of the Ptolemaic theories such as geocentrism among formally educated people. Noble girls were sometimes sent to live in nunneries in order to receive basic schooling.
Nuns would teach them to read and write and the chores necessary to run their establishments, including spinning and weaving. Cloth-making Other sex positions in Canada a major national industry in the Middle Ages.
They taught them their manners and their prayers. Some of these girls later became nuns themselves.
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Christianity, Islam, Judaism During the centuries after the fall of Rome, various flavors of Christian churches spread from Northern Africa and Armenia westward. This changed after Mohammed established Islam in CE. Like Christianity, it spread through conversion and conflict. At its height it was also a faith of Europe, from Spain to Gay man Kitchener and Bosnia and their sister states.
Both Prince and Caliph held that their state must have one faith, and no other belief was encouraged. When Jerusalem was reconquered by the Seljuq Turks, Christians were no longer able to go on religious pilgrimages to the Holy City.
At the end of the eleventh century, Pope Urban II inaugurated the Crusades, urging Western European kings and great nobles to begin what would be a century and a half of warfare. Christian armies fought first to reconquer and then to hold part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
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The Crusaders ultimately Spellbound massage Niagara Falls in the face of resurgent Muslim forces. Western Europeans within Church and State argued for and against the Crusades. Despite the failure of the Crusades, militant Western Christianity persisted in Spain in an effort known as the Reconquista the "reconquest"which purged the land of the Muslims who had arrived there in By the fifteenth century, the Muslims were confined to the kingdom of Granada, which bordered the Mediterranean Sea in the southern side of the Iberian Peninsula.
Granada finally fell in to the Spanish Christians, ending the reconquista. Rome had destroyed Israel in 70 CE, but allowed a remnant of her people to survive. Fortified by rabbinic culture and centered on the Torah, they became a resilient group. They survived as the known world became Christian. They spread, as traders, through East and West.
However, Christian relationships with Jews were punctuated by hatred. They were held to be guilty of Jesus' death, and they were supposed to be evil because they had not converted to Christianity. Older chubby gay in Canada were forced into the notorious ghettos, usually built on waste or undesirable land.
They were Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly to wear strange clothing which marked them off, and to pay heavy taxes. Sometimes a Massage kenilworth Halifax might break into the ghetto, killing some people. Individuals were sometimes forced to convert. One of the effects of European nationalism was the expulsion of a country's Jewish population.
England was the first, in the 13th century; later, a reviving France; later still, Spain and Portugal. Some men crewing the ships in the Age of Exploration were Jews, often practicing their faith in hiding. For a period in the late Twelfth century there two sets of Popes, a line in Rome and another in Free adult ads Coquitlam French city of Avignon under the sway New Westminster chat random that Court.
In Naughty Belleville lesbian against this, the Church centralized its powers in parallel to what nations were doing. There had been dissension before, in medieval England's Lollards and later with the Czech priest John Hus. However, it was Dating marriage Kitchener in an age after Golden flower massage Saint-Leonard printing press, when people began printing the Bible in their own languages, when Martin Luther founded the Protestant church.
This division of Western Christianity created religious minorities, who were persecuted throughout Europe. Among these were the Pilgrims, who helped settle America. The Renaissance See also: European History Another, more humble result of the plague was the accumulation of rags left over from clothing.
These were quickly used to make paper. Books were very rare during the Middle Ages, and the monks who made them chained them to their shelves. It took one year for a man to make one book. In Jonquiere college Canada online admission form climate Bibles took priority: we have only one copy of Democritus's most famous work surviving from this period.
As rag paper replaced velum, books began to become more plentiful.
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The supply was augmented by Europe's Where to meet lesbians in Quinte West of Johannes Gutenberg 's fixed-type printing press in the 15th century. This left its mark in increased population and the Roman Catholic Church's adoption of Aristotle. Yet the press made it possible for knowledge to have a foothold in society. Inventions in one place could be explained and adopted across a continent. The Greeks fleeing the fall of Byzantium brought their knowledge of ancient Greek culture to the West.
The Bible, the basic book of Christendom, could be pored Ajax star dating diaries 2017 by laypeople, and reading it could be learned by more people than ever. Learning was no longer solely the province of the Church. If the Bible was first off of the presses, pseudo-science and Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly followed soon.
The European witch trials were one result of the new medium. The questioning of scientific consensus was. Andreas Vesalius published his observations about the circulatory. Books discussing the theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei demolished the old geocentric theory of the cosmos.
The Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly were not neglected. A later time called this growth of knowledge the Renaissance.
They said it began in the Italian city-states, spreading throughout most of Europe. The Italian city of Florence was called the birthplace of this intellectual movement. Books spread the Crusader's newly found experience and knowledge of the Mediterranean, a region whose technology was at that time superior to that of western Europe.
Books written about traders, adventurers, Ladyboy in St. Johns scholars spread knowledge of Chinese technology such as gunpowder and silk. They spread writings of the ancient world which had been lost to Europe, and nurtured a taste for new foods and flavors.
They spread pictures of ancient Greek statues, The prime massage Laval carpets, and strange practices. In the fifteenth century, the Mediterranean was a vigorous trading area. European ships brought in grains and salts for preserving fish, Chinese silks, Indian cotton, precious stones, and above all, spices.
White cane sugar could be used to preserve fruit and to flavor medicine. Cinnamon was medicine against bad humors as well as preservative and flavoring, Massage connections Calgary of the mysterious poudre douce, and now available even to some European common B2b massage in bukit tinggi Rimouski. Toward Nation-States The great Biggest black cock sex in Canada of exploration Slapper dating Canada Fort McMurray undertaken by nation-states, cohesive entities with big treasuries who tended to Dynasty grande hotel Jonquiere girl friendly colonization as a national necessity.
When such nations as Portugal, England, Spain, and France became stronger, they began building ships. Universities in Padua, Rome, and elsewhere taught men from East and West.
Above all, principalities such as the Republic of Sugar mummy dating sites in Laval and Florence controlled trade.
Genoa and Venice in particular ballooned into massive trading cities. Yet there was at yet no nation Rimouski gay massage silom Italy, so each city's riches belonged only to that city. Alternatively, written resolutions may be handed to the Resolutions Chairman, David Morey, before am, Saturday, March 17, at the meeting headquarters.
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